Science & Research

Independent researchers’ findings...

  • support the claims of users

  • confirm how safe Yamoa™ is

  • and reveal how it works

Over the last ten years, independent researchers have been intrigued by the dramatic anecdotal evidence from Yamoa™ users, enough to secure their own funding sources for research into its active constituents, no doubt in their search for new medinical actives.

Findings have revealed that Yamoa™ is an effective anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, antifungal and an anti-plasmodial; it stimulates innate immunity, improves the white blood cell count and slants the allergic immune response on a molecular level.

The slanting of the immune system on a molecular level is key here. This is why we receive so many reports of long term, lasting results. By changing a TH2 (abnormal) response to allergens to an increased level in TH1 responses (normal), Yamoa™ brings about a resolution to the root cause of the problem, rather than just dealing with the symptoms.

Simply put, all these factors together explain just why Yamoa™ is so effective at changing the body’s response to allergens which trigger asthma attacks, hay fever (seasonal rhinitis) and help to improve respiratory health - for some people well beyond their expectations.

What the scientists have been saying...

"This anti-inflammatory effect would be consistent with the main use of Yamoa™ in humans, to alleviate asthma." - Changes in gene expression in gamma delta T cells induced by Yamoa

"Our ongoing studies suggest that the responses of T cells may be responsible, to some degree, for the innate immune benefit provided by these dietary supplements." - Procyanidin- and polysaccharide-induced γδ T cell priming.

"Funtumia elastica (bark) and M oppositifolius (leaf) showed that the plant extracts possess antifungal properties and can be effective antibiotics since they inhibited the growth of fungal causative agents of skin disease." - Antifungal property and phytochemical screening of the crude extracts of Funtumia elastica and Mallotus oppositifolius.



For further information about these studies which have been published in peer-reviewed journals such as Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, International Immunopharmacology and The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology to name but a few, please read on.



Yamoa™ - A New Discovery in the fight against Malaria?

In 2005 in the Ivory Coast Guédé Noël Zirihi along with a team of researchers published a paper entitled Isolation, characterization and antiplasmodial activity of steroidal alkaloids from Funtumia elastica (Preuss) Stapf.’ in the Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. They had tested the bark’s activity against the parasite that causes malaria, Plasmodium falciparum. The team found that the compounds tested showed significant anti-plasmodium activity. They suggested that: 'Each compound … showed significant inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum growth ... They could be used as lead compounds for the synthesis of novel anti-plasmodial agents with improved activity.’ 1
In other words, they believed they had discovered something new to help in the fight against the second biggest killer in the World today.



Yamoa™ More Effective than Fulcin in the Fight Against Candida

In 2006 a team of scientists from the Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Lagos, in Nigeria led by AA Adekunle tried seeing the effects of Funtumia elastica on fungi. They extracted the ingredients of the bark of Funtumia elastica and used it on scrapings of fungal infections obtained from the finger of a patient at the National Primary Health Centre, Lagos. The fungi present in the scraping were Candida albicans, Miscrosporium audouinii, Aspergillus flavus, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Penicillium sp., Trichosporon cutaneum and Trichoderma sp. It was found that except Miscrosporium audouinii and Trichosporon cutaneum, the bark inhibited all the other fungi when assessed after 48 hours of immersion in the bark extract. It was concluded that:

'The results … show that all the crude extracts had definite significant antifungal activity on most of the fungi. Generally, the crude extracts were more active against fungus than Fulcin antibiotic. The results obtained on the antifungal activity of Funtumia elastica (bark) and M oppositifolius (leaf) showed that the plant extracts possess antifungal properties and can be effective antibiotics since they inhibited the growth of fungal causative agents of skin disease.’ 3

Unique Yamoa™ Polysaccharides Stimulate Innate Immunity and Demonstrate Potential for Infectious Disease

In 2008, one team of researchers at the Montana State University Veterinary Molecular Biology department headed by Jodi Hedges and Jill Graff published their paper entitled, 'Polysaccharides derived from Yamoa™ (Funtumia elastica) prime γδ T cells in vitro and enhance innate immune responses in vivo'. Their study found that stimulation of purified cattle cells and monocytes with Yamoa™ resulted in the expression of genes in a manner similar to that seen with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS are molecules containing fats and carbohydrates found in the outer covering of certain bacteria. LPS produce strong immune reactions in animals on exposure and thus, are used to study immune responses or compare the immune response produced by two substances. Thus, Yamoa™ clearly activated the innate immunity4. In the same test, they found that injection of Yamoa™ led to increase in neutrophil activation and enhanced the natural immunity against the typhoid bacteria of mice and cattle used for the study4. This proved that the active ingredient of Yamoa™ is a novel natural ingredient that can be used as an adjunct to innate immunity and might be used in the future to create treatments against other bacteria too4. To quote the research paper published in 'International Immunopharmacology', 'Thus, polysaccharide agonists derived from Yamoa™ are novel innate adjuvants with conserved activity and potential application in infectious disease settings.’ The paper concluded, ‘This characterization of the immune stimulatory properties of polysaccharides derived from Yamoa™ suggests mechanisms for the anecdotal positive effects of its ingestion and that these polysaccharides show potential for application in innate protection from disease.’ 8

The team believes that the unique polysaccharides found in Yamoa™ may be what is causing all the benefits its users are reporting.

Yamoa™ Found to Stimulate Innate Immunity and Proves to be an Effective Anti-Bacterial

 

Also, in 2008, the same team conducted another study on cattle, Enhancing Innate Immunity in Bovine Calves by Stimulating GammaDelta T Cells with Plant-Derived Polysaccharides’. It was determined that, 'Yamoa™ stimulated innate immunity in part by affecting the gamma delta T cells. Yamoa™ had distinct priming effects, very similar to but more robust than, that of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on bovine, mouse and human gamma delta T cells. Yamoa™ stimulated human cells to produce cytokines [hormonal messengers responsible for most of the biological effects in the immune system] involved in innate protection.'

 

The same study also found that Yamoa™ and the active fraction of Yamoa™, Yam-I was efficacious for treating mice against the typhoid bacterium producing colitis, seen as a reduction in the bacterial count in mice faeces. These findings suggest that Yamoa™ has potential for positive action in asthma and infectious diseases as well.5

To quote: 'This initial characterization of the immune stimulatory properties of polysaccharides derived from Yamoa™ suggests potential mechanisms for positive effects in asthma and that they have potential for application in infectious disease settings.’

Yamoa™ Proven to be an Effective Anti-Inflammatory

Again, the same team of scientists under the guidance of Jodi Hedges at the Montana State University Veterinary Molecular Biology department also revealed in this study that the that calves that had undergone a cannulation surgery and been fed Yamoa™ compared to calves that hadn’t been fed the powder, had lesser inflammatory markers, showing that Yamoa™ had produced an anti-inflammatory effect in them and dampened the after-effects of the surgery.6 This raised the question whether this anti-inflammatory effect might be the reason it was helping so many asthmatics, by reducing the inflammation of the air passages that get swollen and constricted in asthma.6

"This result suggested that ingesting Yamoa™ may have had an anti-inflammatory effect that dampened the inflammation involved in surgery. This anti-inflammatory effect would be consistent with the main use of Yamoa™ in humans, to alleviate asthma."

Yamoa™ Improves White Blood Cell Counts

Another team of researchers led by scientist Jeff Holderness and again Jodi Hedges from the Montana State University Veterinary Molecular Biology department focussed on the T cells that are lymphocytes derived from a gland called Thymus in the neck. T cells were coated with Yamoa™ extract. Study calves that were fed the powder supplement showed that there was improvement in their white blood cell counts.7 The study Procyanidin- and polysaccharide-induced γδ T cell priming concluded, 'Our ongoing studies suggest that the responses of T cells may be responsible, to some degree, for the innate immune benefit provided by these dietary supplements.

The research was published in The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.

Yamoa™ Polysaccharides Slant Allergic Immune Response on a Molecular Level

The latest research published in 2012 by Jodi Hedges and her team at the Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Montana State University, found that certain plant polysaccharides stimulate IL-12 (Interleukin) production (immune system messengers) which indirectly stimulates IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma) production (critical for innate and adaptive immunity) from the white blood cells in the lung mucous membrane. This IFN-gamma production favors a TH1 response which has been proven to alleviate symptoms of asthma.9, 10

'We are more focused on Acai polysaccharides, because they are distinguishable from LPS (Lipopolysaccharides), unlike Yamoa. However, Acai polysaccharides and Yamoa likely have the same mechanism, and Acai PS are not available in a nifty pill, like Yamoa is. Yamoa is only shown in the first figure [see below], but is clearly having a similar effect as Acai PS.'

- Jodi F. Hedges, Ph.D. Assistant Research Professor, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Montana State University, referring to 'Polysaccharides Isolated from Açaí Fruit Induce Innate Immune Responses.' February 28, 2011, PLOS: One.

The study corroborates that despite genetic variations, the plant polysaccharides are capable of slanting immune responses towards reduction of asthma and its symptoms right down to the molecular level. TH1 cells are helper T cells, a type of white blood cells, that are responsible to maintain immunity and good health. Excessive TH2 cells are thought to be the reason currently for allergies and asthma. Thus, an increase in the TH1 response would balance out the excessive TH2 response, reducing asthmatic symptoms.

γδ T cell stimulatory activity in Acai is concentrated in the polysaccharide fraction and effective in all species tested.


Arriving at the TH1/TH2 Balance Hypothesis

'As discussed in Graff et al., Yamoa™ is purported to be beneficial in asthma. Asthma is associated with an exaggerated TH2 cytokine response mediated in part by gd T cells. In mice, lung gd T cells are present that can either promote or restrict TH2 cytokine responses. Clinical evidence indicates that gd T cells are increased in asthmatic patients and also that these cells produce large amounts of TH2 cytokines after antigen challenge. Since therapies to increase TH1 responses can alleviate asthma symptoms, we originally proposed that the anecdotal asthma benefits attributed to plant polysaccharides might be a result of tipping the gd T cell cytokine balance in the lung towards a TH1 response. At the time, we had no direct evidence in support of this hypothesis, and results would have been difficult to interpret due to the endotoxin reactive component of Yamoa polysaccharides. Here we found that Acai-1 directly induced IL-12 production in the mouse lung. IL-12 release favors a downstream TH1 response via IFN-g production from leukocytes in the mucosa. Thus, we provide, for the first time, mechanistic evidence for the potential benefit of some plant polysaccharides by driving TH1 responses in the lung. In addition, IFN-g is crucial for host defense responses against intracellular bacterial pathogens of the lung, such as Francisella tularensis and Coxiella burnetii.'

Yamoa™ for the Whole Family

Although we know Yamoa™ has proven safe anecdotally for all ages for generations, we now have several studies that have declared that Yamoa™ appears safe and non-toxic. When interviewed and asked to explain why this might be, Jodi Hedges PhD of the Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases at Montana State University explained:

"We think that in vivo the main response to polysacchrides is that they prime the cells, to better respond to other signals. They do not overtly stimulate the cells, and they do not induce inflammatory cytokines. Targeting these gd T cells and NK cells is nifty because these cells are not the source of strong damaging cytokines like IL-1, IL-6 and TNFa, these come from macrophages. gd T cells and NK cells are anti-inflammatory in many situations, and polysaccharides may enhance that capacity as well. Macrophages are not known for this, but also do not appear to be a primary target for these polysaccharides (if they were, we would see more inflammation not less)” .


 

References

1. Guede Noel, Philippe Grellier et al. Isolation, characterization and antiplasmodial activity of steroidal alkaloids from Funtumia Elastica (Preuss) Stapf. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 15 (2005) 2637-2640.
2. Zirihi Guede Noel et al. Evaluation in vitro of antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of Funtumia elastica, Rauvolfia vomitoria and Zanthoxylum gilletii on Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Cote-d’Ivoire. Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 2009. Vol. 5, Issue 1: 406 - 413.
3. AA Adekunle; AM Ikumapayi. Antifungal property and phytochemical screening of the crude extracts of Funtumia elastica and Mallotus oppositifolius. West Indian med. j. vol.55 no.4 Mona Sept. 2006
4. Hedges Jodi, Graff Jill et al. 2008 Novel innate polysaccharide agonists derived from Funtumia elastica tree bark (Yamoa™). Veterinary Molecular Biology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA. The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.
5. Hedges Jodi. Enhancing innate immunity in Bovine Calves by stimulating gamma delta T cells with plant-derived polysaccharides. Montana State University.
6. Transcription profiling of Bos Taurus gamma delta T cells induced by Yamoa. Array Express.
7. Holderness Jeff, Hedges Jodi et al. Procyanidin- and polysaccharide-induced γδ T cell priming. Veterinary Molecular Biology.
8. Graff JC, Kimmel E et al. Polysaccharides derived from Yamoa™ (Funtumia elastica) prime gamma delta T cells in vitro and enhance innate immune responses in vivo. Intl Immunopharmacol. (2009) doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2009.07.015
9. Holderness J, Schepetkin IA, Freedman B, Kirpotina LN, Quinn MT, et al. (2011) Polysaccharides Isolated from Ac¸aı´ Fruit Induce Innate Immune Responses. PLoS ONE 6(2): e17301.
10. Skyberg JA, Rollins MF, Holderness JS, Marlenee NL, Schepetkin IA, et al. (2012) Nasal Acai Polysaccharides Potentiate Innate Immunity to protect against Pulmonary Francisella tularensis and Burkholderia pseudomallei Infections. PLoS Pathog 8(3): e1002587.

Glossary:

Active ingredient (AI) : is the substance that is biologically active.
Adjunct: [aj-uhngkt] noun - something added to another thing but not essential to it.
Agonist: [ag-uh-nist] noun – Pharmacology - a chemical substance capable of activating a receptor to induce a full or partial pharmacological response.
Antigen challenge: The antigen challenge is the first encounter between an immunocompetent lymphocyte and an invading antigen.
Cannula: (from Latin "little reed"; plural cannulae) or canula is a tube that can be inserted into the body, often for the delivery or removal of fluid or for the gathering of data.
Cytokines: (Greek cyto-, cell; and -kinos, movement) are a broad and loose category of small proteins that are important in cell signaling. Cytokines include chemokines, interferons, interleukins, lymphokines, tumour necrosis factor but generally not hormones or growth factors. Cytokines are produced by broad range of cells, including immune cells, as well as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and various stromal cells. They are especially important in the immune system. They are different from hormones, which are also important cell signaling molecules, in that hormones circulate in much lower concentrations and hormones tend to be made by specific kinds of cells. They are important in health and disease, specifically in host responses to infection, immune responses, inflammation, trauma, sepsis, cancer, and reproduction.
γδ T cells: (gamma delta T cells) represent a small subset of T cells that possess a distinct T-cell receptor (TCR) on their surface. This group of T cells is usually much less common than αβ T cells, but are at their highest abundance in the gut mucosa, within a population of lymphocytes known as intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). The conditions that lead to responses of γδ T cells are not fully understood, and current concepts of γδ T cells as 'first line of defense', 'regulatory cells', or 'bridge between innate and adaptive responses' only address facets of their complex behaviour. Mature γδ T cells are divided into functionally distinct subsets that have countless direct and indirect effects on healthy tissues and immune cells, on pathogens and tissues enduring infections and the host responses to them. Like other 'unconventional' T cell subsets bearing invariant TCRs γδ T cells exhibit several characteristics that place them at the border between the more evolutionarily primitive innate immune system that permits a rapid beneficial response to a variety of foreign agents, and the adaptive immune system, where B and T cells coordinate a slower but highly antigen-specific immune response leading to long-lasting memory against subsequent challenges by the same antigen.
Innate immune system: also known as non-specific immune system and first line of defence - the cells of the innate system recognize and respond to pathogens in a generic way, but, unlike the adaptive immune system it does not confer long-lasting or protective immunity to the host. Innate immune systems provide immediate defence against infection, and are found in all classes of plant and animal life.
Interferon gamma: (IFNγ) is a cytokine that is the only member of the type II class of interferons. The existence of this interferon early in its history was known as immune interferon. IFNγ, or type II interferon, is a cytokine that is critical for innate and adaptive immunity against viral and intracellular bacterial infections and for tumor control. Aberrant IFNγ expression is associated with a number of autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The importance of IFNγ in the immune system stems in part from its ability to inhibit viral replication directly, and most importantly from its immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory effects. IFNγ is produced predominantly by natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells as part of the innate immune response, and by CD4 Th1 and CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) effector T cells once antigen-specific immunity develops.
Interleukins: are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins and signaling molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes). The function of the immune system depends in a large part on interleukins, and rare deficiencies of a number of them have been described, all featuring autoimmune diseases or immune deficiency.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) : also known as lipoglycans, and endotoxin are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and elicit strong immune responses in animals.
Lymphocyte: is any of 3 types of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system. They include natural killer cells (NK cells) (which function in cell-mediated, cytotoxic innate immunity), T cells (for cell-mediated, cytotoxic adaptive immunity), and B cells (for humoral, antibody-driven adaptive immunity). They are the main type of cell found in lymph, which prompted the name lymphocyte.
Monocytes: are a type of white blood cells (leukocytes). They are the largest of all leukocytes. They are part of the innate immune system of vertebrates including all mammals (humans included), birds, reptiles, and fish.
Neutrophil: the most abundant (40% to 75%) type of white blood cells in mammals and form an essential part of the innate immune system.
Novel: [nov-uh l] adjective of a new kind; different from anything seen or known before: a novel idea.
Phytochemicals: are chemical compounds that occur naturally in plants (phyto means "plant" in Greek). The term is generally used to refer to those chemicals that may have biological significance, for example antioxidants, but are not established as essential nutrients. Scientists estimate that there may be as many as 10,000 different phytochemicals having the potential to affect diseases such as cancer, stroke or metabolic syndrome.

 


How does Yamoa work?

Independent researchers from Montana State University in the USA have determined how the unique active ingredients found in Yamoa correct your immune system to respond normally to allergens.

Yamoa works on the root cause of your symptoms by altering your immune system’s response to allergens, normalising your reaction to them and so eradicating symptoms.

Because Yamoa changes the immune system and doesn’t just manage or mask symptoms, like many people you may find that a two month course is enough Yamoa™ to give you long-lasting benefits.

Powerful properties

Other powerful properties discovered in Yamoa™ by independent researchers from London, France and the Ivory Coast combine to make it a wonderful all-round health supplement.

The top 5 Yamoa™ research findings:

• An effective anti-inflammatory
• Improves white blood cell counts
• Yamoa polysaccharides stimulate innate immunity
• An effective antibacterial
• Yamoa slants allergic immune response on a molecular level

Frequently asked questions

1. What exactly is Yamoa?

Yamoa™ Powder comes in 30gm containers of pure Funtumia elastica ground bark powder. The Yamoa™ Capsules contain 500mg pure Funtumia elastica ground bark powder, 10mg Magnesium stearate B.P., and a vegan cellulose capsule.
Yamoa™ powder 30gm contains pure Funtumia elastica bark powder. The capsules are pure powder with a small amount of magnesium stearate as an anti-caking agent, and a cellulose (vegan) capsule.
POWDER: Mix the entire contents of the 30gm bottle thoroughly with an average size jar of honey, about 1lb (454gm). Stir well until the powder is completely mixed, also stir the mixture each time you use it. Adults: One 5 ml standard teaspoonful twice a day for one month continuously. Children: under the age of 12: Half a 5ml teaspoon twice a day for one month continuously. OR take 1/4 of a 5ml teaspoon of powder twice a day with a glass of water or fruit juice, tea or any beverage, an eighth of a teaspoon for children. FOR BEST RESULTS, FINISH ENTIRE MIXTURE EVEN IF RELIEF IS FOUND AT AN EARLY STAGE OF TREATMENT. CAPSULES: Adults: 1 capsule twice a day (morning and evening) with water. Children aged 12 and under: 1/2 capsule twice a day (morning and evening) mixed in honey or jam, maple syrup or other foodstuff to mask bitter taste. If the child is old enough to swallow the capsule, only half of the powder will require mixing with honey (or other). IT IS IMPORTANT NOT TO STOP YOUR OR YOUR CHILDS CURRENT MEDICATION WITHOUT YOUR DOCTORS ADVICE.
The guide is really just twice a day, at a decent interval of a good 6-8 hours - it does not have to be specifically at mealtimes, although people usually find it easier not to forget to take the dose if taken at these benchmarks in the day.
The pure Yamoa™ should be emptied completely into the honey and mixed thoroughly, then stirred before each dose is taken. Using the right amount of honey/jam (approx. 1lb/454gm) ensures that the correct dose is taken. Please remember a child's dose is half a teaspoon of the mixture, and the mixture will be taken over approximately 2 months in all for a child.
You can mix it with a jam, brown rice syrup, pure maple syrup, water or any beverage. It can also be sprinkled into baby cereals or yoghurt for young children or babies - honey is not recommended for babies under 1 year due to the risk of Botulism (bacteria in honey). Yamoa™ tastes bitter, so it is better mixed with something sweet. If you are a diabetic, you are best advised to mix it with a low sugar carrier. We have Yamoa™ in Capsule form, which is ideal for people who cannot take Yamoa™ mixed in honey.
Most people find they get results within the first two months. Some people obviously need more than two months, but some people do take the powder for longer for a variety of reasons. Many people experience changes in their condition within the first two weeks, but it is best to take the mixture until the course is finished entirely.
It has been a long-term solution for many people. We tend generally to supply second courses to people who are re-ordering on behalf of their friends or relatives rather than themselves, but obviously some people may require follow-up treatment consecutively or the following season. Others tend to buy again for themselves to have the product to hand 'just in case'. It is a very subjective remedy, and we cannot categorically say that you will only need the one course.
We have found that people who have had their condition for many years, and who are in the senior age bracket, have generally required more than one course of Yamoa™ before beginning to feel substantial benefits. This may be down to the fact that the condition is long-standing, and that an older person has a longer history of illness and stress, which may mean a reduced immune system capacity, which may make it harder to recover from a condition as quickly as a younger person or a child. With this in mind, it may mean that although Yamoa™ may not appear to improve your condition within a month, it may need longer to establish its healing properties and boost your immune system against the triggers which cause your asthma. Persevering with Yamoa™ for more than one month may therefore bring better results.
Hay fever sufferers have been known to take Yamoa™ in the winter, and it has remained effective for the following hay fever season. Others have found relief from their symptoms after taking it at the beginning of the season. Others find they take it at the beginning of the season each year. Most people who take it whilst they are suffering symptoms, find relief within a couple of weeks of taking it. It is always recommended to take the dose every day until the course is finished completely even if relief is found early on in treatment. One course (two months) is usually enough for one person.
We have had isolated reports (from single people) of a reaction of a rash, water-retention, a tickly cough, stomachache and palpitations (when taking blood pressure tablets also). Some people may respond initially to Yamoa™ with what is termed as a 'healing reaction' (sometimes known as a healing 'crisis' or Herxheimer reaction). This is when symptoms seem to worsen before they start to improve, and it can be quite alarming for some people, particularly asthma sufferers. Please bear this in mind, and although it is rare with Yamoa™, it is common with many complimentary therapies. Please be sure, particularly if you suffer from respiratory attacks such as in asthma, that you always carry your emergency medication with you at all times, even if you feel Yamoa™ has helped you combat your condition. We do not recommend you take Yamoa™ if you are pregnant or breastfeeding, or if you are on blood pressure medication. We also do not recommend mixing the powder with honey or another sweet carrier if you suffer from fungal infections in the respiratory tract (see Powder versus Capsules questions below). If you find you are experiencing any adverse symptoms from taking Yamoa™, please let us know. Please see our 'drug interactions' question.
We have had feedback from one lady regarding a possible interaction between Yamoa™ and her daily dose of 0.5mg of Norvasc (blood pressure medication), resulting in palpitations which increased in severity the longer she used the powder. She ceased use of the powder, and her palpitations disappeared after a few days. This is the only drug interaction we know of to date. Tests to establish whether it could interact with any one medication taken by any given individual are impossible to conduct due to the enormity of the task (there are so many drugs and drug combinations being taken), that we cannot give a conclusive guarantee that this will never happen, therefore it is strictly your decision as to whether you will go ahead and use Yamoa™ whilst on your current medications. If you experience any signs that an adverse reaction is happening to you when you take Yamoa™, you must stop immediately and consult your healthcare specialist, and inform us so that we can advise others of possible interactions.
We do not recommend that pregnant or breastfeeding women or people on High Blood pressure medications take Yamoa™.
Yamoa™ has been microbiologically analysed to clinically confirm that it is free from nasties such as Salmonella and E-Coli, Faecal Coliforms and Faecal streptococci. The conclusion to the tests was: "The analyses undertaken provided no evidence of the presence of pathogenic bacteria on any of the samples examined". Further research (Graff JC et al, Polysaccharides derived from Yamoa™ (Funtumia elastica) prime γδ T cells in vitro and enhance innate immune responses in vivo, Int Immunopharmacol (2009), doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2009.07.015) found that Yamoa™ in fact "may be effective as therapeutic innate immunostimulants in Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium infection and potentially other infectious disease settings." It has also been tested by the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (MINISTRY OF HEALTH), Ghana, by S. Osafaro-Mensah MSc. These tests were performed between 1996 and 1998. Mr Osafaro's conclusions to the tests were "The investigation and clinical trials conducted have shown that Yamoa™ is safe for human use...and when the bark is dried it can be safely stored for up to 6yrs before being ground for use". A peer reviewed scientific research paper, (Graff JC et al, Polysaccharides derived from Yamoa™ (Funtumia elastica) prime γδ T cells in vitro and enhance innate immune responses in vivo, Int Immunopharmacol (2009), doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2009.07.015) conducted by Montana State University's Molecular Biology department determined that Yamoa™ "appears safe" with "no evidence of toxic or other adverse effects". Jodi Hedges, one of the lead researchers on Yamoa™ explained when interviewed, "We think that in vivo the main response to polysaccharides is that they prime the cells, to better respond to other signals. They do not overtly stimulate the cells, and they do not induce inflammatory cytokines. Targeting these gd T cells and NK cells is nifty because these cells are not the source of strong damaging cytokines like IL-1, IL-6 and TNFa, these come from macrophages. gd T cells and NK cells are anti-inflammatory in many situations, and polysaccharides may enhance that capacity as well. Macrophages are not known for this, but also do not appear to be a primary target for these polysaccharides (if they were, we would see more inflammation not less).”
The main differences are the ease of use, the ability to maintain an accurate dosage and the compatibility with a strict sugar or carbohydrate free diet, such as that of a diabetic or someone trying to lose weight, or even someone who needs to avoid sugars due to candidiasis, etc. If you suffer from fungal infections in the respiratory tract, it is better to take the capsules than the honey mixture, or at least do not mix the loose powder into honey or a sweet carrier as the sugar will only exacerbate the condition and it may become worse rather than improve. If you do not know whether you are suffering from a fungal infection, it may be better to opt for the capsules to err on the side of caution.
The loose powder is better for those suffering from seasonal allergies or hay fever when mixed with a local honey, as the honey will itself help to strengthen the immune system against local pollens. It is also more suitable for those suffering from conditions such as MCS (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity) as it does not have the added presence of magnesium stearate, as in the capsules. If you suffer from fungal infections in the respiratory tract, it is better to take the capsules than the honey mixture, or at least do not mix the loose powder into honey or a sweet carrier as the sugar will only exacerbate the condition and it may become worse rather than improve. If you do not know whether you are suffering from a fungal infection, it may be better to opt for the capsules to err on the side of caution.
NEWS & EVENTS

Interesting blogs